Ad Lapidem contains essays on art, the classics, ethics, government, literature, logic, philosophy, poetry, religion, science, and translation. It is named after the argumentum ad lapidem, a humorous name given to Samuel Johnson’s refutation of Berkeley’s claim that matter does not exist—a refutation he made by kicking a stone. The essays vary greatly in scope and tone, but I hope that are informative and/or entertaining. I have no wish to offend anyone, but the some of the things I say may be uncomfortable for readers who don’t agree. I hope they will bear with me. I haven’t assumed specialized knowledge of any subject. All entries are copyrighted and subject to the usual restrictions governing fair use. At some point I will add more essays to this.